A Tale To Tell & Remember

I'm very much inspired by the words of Thomas L. Friedman in his book "The World Is Flat" which renders about the influence of bloggers in this new age. I want to keep the highest integrity and honesty in posting my words to the world. This blog act as a testimony to my alacrity of sharing information with the borderless world. Hope we can share a high regards of veracity and chivalry with this blog because that's why it is here. So help me God!

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Wednesday, 24 November 2010

My trip to Kenaboi, Negeri Sembilan

Kenaboi dwellers early 1960s opening up land for development

1. Last Eid, I was given an exclusive opportunity from a friend of mine to visit and experience Eid celebration at his village in Kampung Chennah, Kenaboi within the district of Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. It was a fantastic outing especially for me that never had any experience in visiting the rural part of Negeri Sembilan.

2. The trip took me half an hour drive from Kajang using the old route (Kajang-Semenyih-Kenaboi) road. We drove past the Semenyih dam and the old road multi-linking the Kenaboi with Semenyih, Batu 14 and the Greater Klang Valley. The road trip was quiet and empty along the way as we drove past through a number of natives villages (orang asli) which to my surprise their houses were well supplied by electricity and I bet also with clean water.

3. The trip to Kenaboi opened up my mind to a lot of things in particular about the social aspects of Malaysian nation building concept. The populations of Kenaboi consists of only two races which are Malay and Chinese that I can estimate up to 1,500 peoples (sic). I was told there were one Indian family lived in Kampung Chennah but choose to migrate to Seremban, but that doesn't stop the head of the Indian family to continue visiting Kenaboi to safeguard one Indian temple built besides the road linking Jelebu town to Kampung Chennah. I did visit the temple that was located right besides a very big tree. The dwellings and populations houses were well surrounded by a rubber plantation worked out from the pre-war period up till today.

4. Most of the Malays population worked as a rubber tapper or owner of a rubber plantation whereas the Chinese works in various fields such as mechanics, Groceries stores, planters and contractors. However the younger generations of Malays and Chinese populations choose to work in Klang Valley area mainly in Kuala Lumpur and they did commute daily from Kenaboi to Kuala Lumpur.

5. I remember that I was once told by a Perbadanan Putrajaya Holdings personnel that Tun Dr. Mahathir did actually considered the Kenaboi area as a location for the new administrative city (Putrajaya) before Prang Besar was choose eventually. During my short stint in Kenaboi, I was fascinated when the population did brief me on the historical facts of Kenaboi and showed the site where Dato’ Undang Abdullah and his family members were beheaded by the Japanese Imperial Army during the war. It was near a bridge of river Kenaboi.

6. I was later told that during the Japanese Occupation period, the Malays population in Kenaboi were not so fond of their new Japanese masters and in seeking protection from the Japanese the Malays did contacted the Malayan People Anti Japanese Army (MPAJA) later known as the Communist which consists of mainly Chinese races. And in that, they formed a pact whereas the MPAJA will provide protection for the Malays while the Malays will provide foods, information and medical supplies for the MPAJA. This relationship continued after the war and when the British came back to Malaya, the introduced the new settlement policy called "new villages" and idea suggested by General Harold Rowdon Briggs (popularly known as Briggs plan) where the Chinese population were put into a center of protection and shields of barbed wire to break the supplies of food and medicine going to the fighting 2nd Regiment of the Communist insurgents hiding within the areas (consist of 250 personnel).

7. I was also showed an interesting areas that concealed many caves (3 of them were shown to me) where the Malays during the Japanese Occupation period seek refuge from the notorious Japanese army and later after the war, the caves were turned into a safe hideout of the Communist insurgents that operated within the Jelebu districts up to the interior Pahang. It was very interesting site as the Kenaboi area were also closely linked with the interior Pahang and ones can only see the strategic location of the based linking Kuala Lumpur and Nothern Part of Peninsular Malaysia through Pahang especially for the Communist insurgents.

8. It is very fascinating when I was later briefed that most of the Malays in Kenaboi area came from various parts of Malaya with a Minangkabau descent and also Pahang bloodline. Although the dialect were about the same, on certain daily usage however Kenaboi populations were comfortable to use certain Pahang influenced dialects in addressing oneself and others.

9. The Briggs plan that were introduced in 1950s proved to be lethal to the Communist insurgents and effective in starving the bandits in the Kenaboi area and you can clearly see through the populations settlements quite a big police station were built in Kampung Chennah a definite an over estimation of the true populations. The structure materials of the old woods of the local houses built mostly for the Chinese populations are distinctly recognize up to this day. Not only through the physical infrastructure part as the Briggs plan were there to be seen, but also on the social aspect where Malays community seems to be complacent and very comfortable conducting daily business with the Chinese descents. And during the night while I was watching Malays kids playing futsal, I can visibly see a throngs of shirtless Chinese kids only watching the Malays playing as the old relationship still continues to this days.

10. In the interior part of Kenaboi area, I was shown during my personal tour to the area of natives in Kenaboi from the Temuan tribe. The orang asli main work are within the industry of the rubber plantation either as a tapper or a menial workers and some of them also work diligently collecting the jungles products such as bamboo and "dammar" latex to be sold to an intermediate that came mostly from Kuala Lumpur. I was very surprised to see that their houses were well supplied by electricity and clean water even their dwellings site were far interior from Kampung Chennah. Their house were a resemblance of FELDA early wood house model and some of them were doing quite well I might say looking at the types of vehicles that they owned and used.

11. I also would gladly state here that Kenaboi also provides streams of beautiful rivers with volcanic rocks that were a beautiful sight and such it that can be develop as the main attraction for tourism industry. The air is still undiluted by others threatening substance and during the night it was a chill cold experience. I will return back to Kenaboi in bringing some of my friends especially to study the new villages and its impact that it had on the population in particular the Kenaboi area.

To be continue…

Sunday, 29 August 2010

It's a long and winding road to nationhood

It's a long and winding road to nationhood for a young teenage country such as Malaysia. It will be quite a while for us to achieve a true mental freedom before we can admit it proudly that all Malaysian had experienced true independence. As a free citizens of a great country such as ours here are some of my personal thought on barriers that we need to surmount in becoming a great country by 2020.

1. Freer economic policy - it is understandable that the previous economic policy moulded by our forefathers especially Tun Abdul Razak after the 13th May 1969 incident emphasized more in helping the Malay race. The policy proved vital and worked well in balancing the economic cake between the main races as such discrepencies proved lethal for multiracial nation. However, some criterias need to be review and revoke as some of the formulae proved to be self-defeating that encourages feudalism especially among the Malay community themselves. Looking back from my past experience whenever I went into rural areas meeting and have a conversation with the rural Malays, it seems that these peoples tended to cling on certain UMNO elites individuals for survivability and this encourages corrupt practices and vis-a-vis parasitic traits between the two host.

2. Religion bigotory - Previous personal accounts by our ancestors did mentioned how the old folks seems to be more open in regarding the other races as one of theirs. They seems to have no problems in getting together and eat at the same stalls even when the eateries is operated by the other races. It was a great and wonderful moment for multiracial nation such as Malaysia. However, after the religion chauvinism took place starting in 1980s, it seems that everybody will try to make a stamp on themselves that they are more Islam than the others. This traits is getting more serious as Malays easily can fall into religion bigotory by labelling others as apostasy (a serious allegation upon other Malays). I do not deny the facts that some necessary steps and action needed to be taken in ensuring the Muslims to obey the God's commandments, however, we have taken religion too far especially in labelling others as un-Islamic unless strict measured is taken. The issuance of halal certificate for an example had become too sensitive for certain muslim and this can be a potent threat to multiracial nations that previously had a mutual respect of each other. Local eateries proved to be an efficient platform in encouraging unity and we had take it out from the national agenda. Muslims in Malaysia tends to be more Arabs than the Arabs themselves and this will be major impedements to progress.

3. UMNO elites - I couldn't help but notice that UMNO elites had becoming more powerful in determining the way forward for Malaysia. Basicly UMNO is a political party and not the right government of Malaysia. But the inculcation done within the years of holding powers had created a situation among the Malays that UMNO is the government and the government is UMNO. Malaysian are very lucky before since good leaders are produced by UMNO and the policy moulded by Tunku Abdul Rahman, Tun Razak, Dr. Mahathir was the right policy at the right time. However, if Malaysia do not have a viable opposition party that can check UMNO in the upcoming years, the elites will continue ruling this country from behind the curtain. Not to mention the right historical facts of nation building contributed by more than UMNO members that had been obscured from public since 1957. It seems that this elites are more concerned on their own survivability rather than the progress of this nation. As such for you to contribute to nation development, you have to be connected to UMNO rather than carrying your own dynamic ideas as can be seen in other fledgling democratic countries. Until Malaysian had viable options to vote for, then we are moving at a slower pace than we should for future betterment.

4. Appreciating history - We never appreciate true historical facts, but merely accepting so called facts given by others. We need to be shrewd in understanding facts and determining between the right history and manipulated facts. As such, many Malays in this country had been well manipulated by interested individuals that had been using facts for their self fulfilling objectives. It is a sorry state to observe when people used religion to stay in power in Malaysia and certain individuals created threats perceptions to continue sucking wealth from their positions whereas the followers lived in a dilapidated state thinking that they will be rewarded in the afterlife. It is really depressing for me thinking that many slogans were created just to cheat these commoners and the people did believe in it.

Now the Malays community in Malaysia seems to regard that this country only belongs to one race only despite the fact that the British government agreed for full independence after we agreed to tolerate each other and admit the differences held as a way of life. Malays need to realize the way forward is by accepting differences. Malaysia cannot stand alone by being governed and dominated in all areas by just one race. We are to complex nation be be a facist state. The differences is our advantage for progress. We need to change now, or else forever we will be colonized by a few interested individuals from our own people which are more than depressing for me. We need to re-learn to tolerate each other. May God bless this great country and may the change come for the betterment.

Friday, 27 August 2010

Malaysian Think Tank and Academic Write Up

To be honest I am very disappointed with the status of Malaysian current think tank organisation such as ISIS, ASLI, MIER and local universities. The main objective of forming such organisation and academic institution is to produce thinking individuals, ideas or academic write up to be analyze, referred to and to instigate new thinking spectrum among Malaysian to move forward. And the set up and operational cost of such organisation is funded from the national treasury, and I can vouch that the allowances and emolument cost given to the respective individuals who run these institutions is through the roof.

However I can say that all the think tank that was formed so far did not yield a minimum required results to be appreciated either through academic seminars, academic writing or even ideas. These vacuum of intelligent output had left the local scholars and new generation of Malaysian citizens to seek reference from abroad. Such were the dire situation of the local academics thinking merit of Malaysian think tank.

What makes me more sad is that many of the local issues were taken up by a foreign think tank organisation and most of it by the dynamic and academic oriented think tank - ISEAS and National University of Singapore (NUS). I regret to admit that most of the important and critical issues faced by the Malaysian government is solved by referring to the academic write up published by these foreign think tank. As such, this think tank have a slight opportunity to influence Malaysian domestic and foreign policy. We let ISEAS to write on Malaysian politician persona such as Tun Dr. Ismail or Tun Dr. Mahathir, and most of the security and political issues that were close to our border were left out to be hijacked by these think tank such as the issues of Southern Thailand insurgency, the straits of Malacca piracy problems and the issues of ASEAN security in the new age or even Malaysian effort in fighting terrorism through the emergency period.

The reason being is very simple, Malaysian policy makers love to hear what they wanted to hear instead of what they need to hear. As such, our local think tank had followed a deadly traits of complacency attitude and tidak apa attitude of the UMNO elite that governed this country.

It is a shameful reality nonetheless.

Friday, 20 August 2010

5 stars so far...

I think I need to mention something about the current progess in Malaysia as some of my foreign friends do visits my blog and email me from time to time asking about it. Well I believe under the current Prime Minister, Malaysia will see an unprecendent growth since the miracle era of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. We have a great visionary leader that doesn't afraid to try unconventional ways to make things work out for the benefits of Malaysia. Dato' Seri Najib deserve a credit for his good work so far and I'm very impressed with it. It is true that all the changes and its good effect made cannot be seen in overnight, but I believe things are moving forward for Malaysia. 5 stars so far from me.

Saturday, 14 August 2010

Tiada garis sempadan budi...

Teddy di tempat baru

Salam Ramadhan kepada semua. Sudah agak terlalu lama telah saya tinggalkan blog ini tanpa sebarang berita terkini serta maklumat dan informasi yang boleh kita kongsikan bersama. Saya akui waktu yang telah saya korbankan sewaktu bertugas di Tourism menyebabkan saya tidak mempunyai waktu untuk menulis di ruangan blog ini lantas perkara ini turut mengecewakan diri saya. Pengalaman yang saya perolehi dan dapati sewaktu bertugas di Tourism sangat bermakna. Bukan sahaja Allah s.w.t. telah mendidik saya berkenaan pengertian budi dan etika profesionalisme, malah Allah s.w.t. juga telah kurniakan saya kumpulan sahabat yang sangat mengerti dan memahami dan saya sangat bersyukur kepada-Nya.

Benarlah kata orang tua-tua, kadang-kala kita tidak akan menghargai apa yang ada di depan mata melainkan jika ianya sudah dibawa pergi. Saya sangat rindukan sahabat-sahabat saya di Tourism kerana mereka sudah saya anggap seperti saudara kandung sendiri. Namun saya juga akur dan menerima hakikat bahawa kepakaran saya amat diperlukan di tempat lain, lebih-lebih lagi di dalam memberi sumbangan kepada pembangunan negara yang bertuah ini.

Ingin saya kongsikan pengertian budi dan nilai mulia. Nilai yang dipegang oleh seseorang manusia akan menentukan kejayaan hidup dirinya pada masa hadapan. Kejayaan seseorang individu tidak akan ditentukan oleh keluarga atau asal keturunan ataupun dijanjikan dengan tahap pendidikan yang diperolehinya. Tetapi kejayaan seseorang manusia amatlah dipengaruhi oleh nilai hidup yang dipegang erat dan dijadikan telunjuk untuk dirinya menghadapi hari-hari mendatang. Benar pendidikan adalah sesuai perkara yang perlu dan menjadi tanggung jawab diri kita terutamanya umat Islam untuk mencari ilmu, namun ilmu tanpa amal tidak akan menjanjikan apa-apa di dalam kehidupan. Kerana itu Allah itu Maha Adil dan Maha Penyayang.

Allah s.w.t. hanya akan menyayangi hamba-Nya yang tertentu sahaja. Kasih sayang Allah terhadap hamba-Nya dicurahkan dengan pelbagai cara yang tidak terjangkau oleh akal manusia. Seseorang individu itu akan merasa dirinya disayangi oleh Penciptanya apabila sampai waktunya. Nilai hidup yang mulia ini sukar untuk diperolehi. Ianya tidak akan diperolehi di mana-mana institusi pengajian samada di sekolah mahupun di universiti. Nilai hidup mulia ini juga tidak mampu diperturunkan oleh seorang ayah atau ibu yang beriman. Nilai hidup yang mulia adalah kurniaan Allah ke atas seseorang hamba-Nya yang disayangi-Nya.

Namun Allah s.w.t. juga mengurniakan hamba-Nya dengan pelbagai deria untuk melihat dan mempelajari nilai ini. Nilai ini diperolehi daripada pelbagai tempat, manusia lain mahupun binatang serta tumbuhan hijau. Penghargaan ke atas nilai ini akan menyebabkan manusia itu lebih menghargai penciptanya dan juga keseluruhan alam. Lantaran itu memberi ilham untuk dirinya lebih berjaya di alam ini. Ilham adalah sesuatu yang tidak diperolehi begitu sahaja, kerana ilham ini diberikan oleh Allah Taala ke atas hamba-Nya yang disayangi.

Pelajarilah nilai mulia ini dari sekeliling, kerana nilai ini akan memberi petunjuk dan hidayah yang jelas ke arah kejayaan dan juga keredhaan Allah. Seseorang yang mempunyai nilai hidup yang mulia akan lebih berbudi tanpa mengira sempadan yang wujud serta tanpa mengharapkan balasan. Seseorang yang mempunyai nilai hidup yang mulia juga tidak akan mengenal erti kalah dengan mudah. Mereka akan mempunyai hati yang cekal dan berwawasan serta dalam masa yang sama disayangi oleh Allah. Orang yang bernilai tinggi juga tidak bersifat pendendam dan lebih menghargai budi orang lain.

Antara kaedah yang mudah untuk memperolehi nilai hidup ini adalah dengan merantau melihat tempat orang lain, membaca dan menghayati nilai-nilai sastera yang bermutu tinggi termasuk sastera dari luar negara dan seseorang itu juga boleh menghayati susunan lagu-lagu terbaik yang menusuk kalbu. Kerana semua nilai di atas adalah dibuat dengan hati yang penuh dan diisi dengan nilai-nilai tertentu. Semuga kita semua tergolong dari kalangan orang-orang yang disayangi oleh Allah dan semuga kita semua sentiasa mendapat rahmat dari-Nya.

Sunday, 4 July 2010

Re emerge

4 July 2010 - I believe Malaysian need to understand issues before discussing it out loud. Malaysian need to learn not to get carried away with emotional feelings especially when those feelings and make believe or were the products of a few interested people. Malaysian need to see what lies ahead for them beyond race and religion. And this posting is a resurgence of my thinkings when discussing about nation development.

Sunday, 21 March 2010

My Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur circa 1900s

21 March 2010 - It's been a while since I blog casually. This time want to talk about Kuala Lumpur. This is one of the finest place in Malaysia that offer an opportunity for those that are diligent enough to mend his/ her way of living. Maybe not as bustling and rich as Singapore, but Kuala Lumpur is unique in its kind of way.

Kuala Lumpur had been a vibrant place since it was opened around 1850s. It was the place where people seek an employment from the heydays of its mining to its undated as the Capital of Malaysia. The best thing since it was developed as the Federated Malay States capital is it's architecture. Mixed with its architectural arts of Moorish, Colonials and Chinese Capitan, it was the kind of the place which unique with the league of Pulau Pinang and Singapore.

Kuala Lumpur circa 1900s

But Kuala Lumpur lost it's beauty after the World War II. The British government were preoccupied with the insurgency problems and the Malaysian government were lost during the Cold War period. This had lead to the acute problems of losing Kuala Lumpur splendor of its pretty architecture arts to a simple, boring and ugly socialist planning especially during the 1960s. So many examples can be seen of this un-planned/ harsh development treatment around the classic area of Kuala Lumpur. The ugly zig-zag, elevated highways around The Old Train Station, the mixed up building constructed in the 1960-1970s era in the middle of the Chinese Capitan shop houses, the neglected dilapidated Majestic Hotel which were left untended to say a few.

Now to my disappointment, every time I went to Kuala Lumpur, I can clearly see the beauty of the past glory marred by the mixed up period scars of the 1960s. Nevertheless, I will always love THE OLD Kuala Lumpur.

Thursday, 11 March 2010

Understanding the real problems of the Southern Thailand ethnic predicaments

By: Ahmad Syah Ejaz Hj. Ismail

When I was a student in my University years (2002-2005), I was very amazed with Thaksin Shinawatra and his economic policy - colloquial as Thaksinomics. He was seen at that time as the right person to replace Mahathir Mohamed in the international stage carrying the voices of the poor and developing nations. But his uprising influence and his premier were later marred by the Southern Thailand ethnic problems which hampered his hope in building the new Thailand through the incorporated policy (administering Thailand using CEO style) of inculcating Capitalism via crash course among the Thais.

To my understanding later, Thaksin doesn’t truly comprehend the socio-political situation in the Southern Thai region. This were made worse by the think tank group which he founded to advise him on how to fight drugs problems in the region by attacking certain groups which erroneously execute the extrajudicial killing policy to achieve quick result. His administrative policy of assimilation turns ugly when Thaksin government abolishes the Southern Border Provinces Administrative Centre (SBPAC) and Civil-Police-Military joint Command (CPM 43) and puts the Police to be in charge of the Southern region security in 2002[i].

This new introduced policies by the Thaksin government later created the political sphere for militant movement which made worse by filling the vacuum activities of the deprived economic background of the Southern Malay ethnic which resided in the area. This worsen situation concluded on the legitimacy issues of the Bangkok Buddhist to governed the ethnic Malays which doesn’t share the same norms, values and the governing consent of both parties[ii].

Thaksin was trying to democratize the security situation in the Southern region in 2002 when he placed the police to be in charge of law and order. This change of policy by Thaksin were seen as a self defeating when particularly in the Southern region, the police were viewed as the most dishonest element of Thailand’s public sector, while the armed forces which were an active members of the SBPAC were seen by the domestic community as the honest institutions[iii].

The ethnic calamities and instability in the Southern region were not off the effect of the Global War on Terror or anything to do with the Wahhabism influences over, but merely an issue of the extension of the Bangkok political power over a majority of a reluctant Malay Muslims which believed they were no part of the larger Buddhist state. In many respects, the state of Patani was regarded by the Malays in the area as a sovereign state by the rule of the Patani Muslim Sultanate. The Malays in the area are very proud of their history and culture which distinguish their ancestry from the Menam Chao Phraya Siamese people[iv].

Even though throughout the years the Thais government had introduced numerous policies of assimilations which offered various incentives and political representation to Bangkok, the Malays inhabitants saw that violence is the most convenient way in advancing their agenda of self government[v].

The problems of the Southern Thailand region can only be solved by bequeathing the Malay Muslim an autonomic power for self rule under the auspices of the Bangkok Monarch. The current trend of the Thai government in administering the southern region can be seen as the Roman Conquerors administering Jerusalem in the 1st Century and it will only end with the same results of endless violence and uprising. Bangkok must learn and know that Patani deserved to be different from the rest of the Thailand due to its history and social background.

[i] Tearing Apart The Land – Islam and Legitimacy in Southern Thailand by Duncan McCargo, Cornell University Press, 2008. page 49.

[ii] Ibid. page. 13.

[iii] Ibid. page 115.

[iv] Ibid. page 4.

[v] Ibid. page. 37.

Sunday, 3 January 2010

The Plight of the Southern Thai’s Malay Ethnic for self autonomy

By: Ahmad Syah Ejaz Bin Hj. Ismail

Most of the time when we discuss the issues of the Malay ethnic, we would comprise ourselves only to two main nation states which are Indonesia and Malaysia without having the slightest idea that there are still a blind spot of the Malay ethnic that needs a particular attention on their plight to self governance and human rights. This blind spot are the Southern Thai’s Malay ethnic.

The Southern Thailand region or once The Kingdom of Ligor (currently centred in Nakhon Si Thammarat) was once a great super power that spans almost the entire south of the Malaysian peninsular. Most of the Northern Malay states such as Kelantan, Kedah, Terengganu, Perlis and even an area of Pahang honoured the protection of Ligor by sending them ‘ufti’ or protection dues in the form of ‘Bunga Emas’ (Gold Flowers). As such, the northern states of Malaysia were once the vassal’s states of the Ligor Kingdom and enjoy a certain degrees of trade relations between them.

During Phibunsongkhram era (1939-1944), the Southern Thailand regions were segregated into four main provinces which are Satun, Songkhla, Pattani, and Narathiwat. The forced assimilation programs under the Field Marshall Phibun had led to the tension arising until today between the Thai Buddhist and the Muslim Malays even though most of the Southern Thai Malays had ditched out their Muslim name, traditions and their way of life including their Malay language for the Thais assimilation programs. But it was a classic prove that assimilations would not work in the areas of plural societies.

During the colonial era, the borderline between Thailand and Malaya were very vague. The Malay Sultans were not very much familiar with the concept of the nation’s states until the arrival of the British Colonial. In the 1909, the Thai government had signed the treaty with the British government recognizing each nation’s states by a clear demarcation line in the Southern Thailand region. In 1909, the ambiguous status of the southern Thailand region was made definitive by the signing of the Anglo-Siamese agreement. In this agreement, the Thai government agreed to cede Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis to the British government and in return, the British government will recognized the ownership of Thailand on the Southern region (Satun, Pattani, Songkhla and Narathiwat).

The price of the whole area in the Anglo-Siamese treaty was that the British will loan the Thai government to funds the construction of a railway line linking Bangkok more closely to its Southern Province.

The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 was signed without contemplating these main factors:

i) The main ethnic group in the Southern Thailand Region are the Malay Muslim and have an affinity for a larger patrons for a Muslim Sultans;

ii) The area were once under the governance of a Pattani Sultanate; and

iii) The close relations between Southern Thailand regions are more interwoven with the Northern Malay states may it be religions, family ties, Royal Malay adherence (Kedah, Kelantan and Perlis) and the Malay ethnic sensitivities and this hundred years of relations can lead to tensions between the antagonistic nature of Therravada Buddhism and Malay Muslims which can be seen from 1948 to 2010.

The three main factors that I underline above have lead to numerous ethnic clashes between the Thailand government personals such as police and army (mainly comprises of Therravada Buddhism) and the Muslim Malay Ethnic community seeking for self autonomy since 1948.

To be continue...


Michael J. Montesano and Patrick Jory, editors, Thai South and Malay North – Ethnic Interaction on a Plural Peninsular, NUS Press Singapore, 2009.

Faces of Tun Teddy

Faces of Tun Teddy